[362] Edward Gibbon's 18th-century writings were influential, presenting the medieval period as a dark age between the glories of Rome and the rebirth of civilisation in the Early Modern period. [260] Fishing in the North Sea expanded into deeper waters, backed by commercial investment from major merchants. [361] In the 16th century, the first academic histories began to be written, typically drawing primarily on the chroniclers and interpreting them in the light of current political concerns. [211], In the 1380s, several challenges emerged to the traditional teachings of the Church, resulting from the teachings of John Wycliffe, a member of Oxford University. [78] Huge estates were initially built up by the king, bishops, monasteries and thegns, but in the 9th and 10th centuries these were slowly broken up as a consequence of inheritance arrangements, marriage settlements and church purchases. [240] Other agricultural lands included arable fields and pastorage, while in some parts of the country, such as the South-West, waste moorland remained testament to earlier over-farming in the Bronze Age. Darby's cross-sectional method was exemplified by his seven-volume reconstruction of the human geography of medieval England, published with collaborators between the early 1950s and the mid 1970s, based on evidence from the Domesday Book. [286] Pitched battles were occasionally fought between armies but these were considered risky engagements and usually avoided by prudent commanders. [147] In rural areas peasant women could enjoy a better standard of living than ever before, but the amount of work being done by women may have increased. [247], Although the Norman invasion caused some damage as soldiers looted the countryside and land was confiscated for castle building, the English economy was not greatly affected. [46] Henry's son, Edward, defeated the rebel factions between 1265 and 1267, restoring his father to power. Portolan charts were key to maritime navigation in the medieval world. [149] There they worked with their husbands, or in a limited number of occupations, including spinning, making clothes, victualling and as servants. [311] Smaller defensible structures called tower houses emerged in the north of England to protect against the Scottish threat. This map of Britain is taken from one of Mercator’s early Atlases. [209] Despite the bishops continuing to play a major part in royal government, tensions emerged between the kings of England and key leaders within the English Church. [334] Major pieces of courtly poetry continued to be produced into the 15th century by Chaucher's disciples, and Thomas Malory compiled the older Arthurian tales to produce Le Morte d'Arthur. 250–251, 271; Johnson, p. 226. [358] Fashionable brick began to be used in some parts of the country, copying French tastes. [292] Soldiers began to be contracted for specific campaigns, a practice which may have hastened the development of the armies of retainers that grew up under bastard feudalism. [269] English scholars since the time of Bede had believed the world was probably round, but Johannes de Sacrobosco estimated the circumference of the earth in the 13th century. [105] The emerging legal system reinvigorated the institution of serfdom in the 13th century by drawing an increasingly sharp distinction between freemen and villeins. ‘In Mapping Medieval Geographies Keith D. Lilley has brought together a broad spectrum of scholars to explore both the medieval engagement with geography as a practice and as a subject of inquiry as well as the imagined geographies of those who inhabited the … [15] Suppressing internal opposition to his rule, Alfred contained the invaders within a region known as the Danelaw. England comprises most of the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, in addition to a number of small islands of which the largest is the Isle of Wight. [325] The quality of illuminated art in England declined significantly in the face of competition from Flanders in the 14th century, and later English illuminated medieval pieces generally imitated Flemish styles. [202] The religious military orders that became popular across Europe from the 12th century onwards acquired possessions in England, including the Templars, Teutons and Hospitallers. [31] In 1100, William II died while hunting. [314] Anglo-Saxon artists created carved ivories, illuminated manuscripts, embroidered cloths, crosses and stone sculpture, although relatively few of these have survived to the modern period. 84–86, 95–96; Barber (2007b), pp. [30] William II inherited the throne but faced revolts attempting to replace him with his older brother Robert or his cousin Stephen of Aumale. [273], Technological advances proceeded in a range of areas. [278] Glazed pottery became widespread in the 12th and 13th centuries, with stoneware pots largely replacing wooden plates and bowls by the 15th century. [200] By 1215, there were over 600 monastic communities in England, but new endowments slowed during the 13th century, creating long-term financial problems for many institutions. [24] William used a network of castles to control the major centres of power, granting extensive lands to his main Norman followers and co-opting or eliminating the former Anglo-Saxon elite. [143] The rights of widows were formally laid down in law by the end of the 12th century, clarifying the right of free women to own property, but this did not necessarily prevent women from being forcibly remarried against their wishes. [268] William of Ockham helped to fuse Latin, Greek and Islamic writing into a general theory of logic; "Ockham's Razor" was one of his oft-cited conclusions. [117] Edward used Parliament even more than his predecessors to handle general administration, to legislate and to raise the necessary taxes to pay for the wars in France. Civil strife re-emerged under Henry III, with the rebel barons in 1258–59 demanding widespread reforms, and an early version of Parliament was summoned in 1265 to represent the rebel interests. [351] During the 12th century the Anglo-Norman style became richer and more ornate, with pointed arches derived from French architecture replacing the curved Romanesque designs; this style is termed Early English Gothic and continued, with variation, throughout the rest of the Middle Ages. [283] By the 9th century, armies of 20,000 men could be called up for campaigns, with another 28,000 men available to guard urban defences. The legal system continued to expand during the 14th century, dealing with an ever-wider set of complex problems. [352] In the early 14th century the Perpendicular Gothic style was created in England, with an emphasis on verticality, immense windows and soaring arcades. [227] Many of those who took up the Cross to go on a Crusade never actually left, often because the individual lacked sufficient funds to undertake the journey. [342], In the century after the collapse of the Romano-British economy, very few substantial buildings were constructed and many villas and towns were abandoned. This map of Britain was one of a number of maps he produced, including maps of mainland Europe. [104] Henry I and Henry II both implemented significant legal reforms, extending and widening the scope of centralised, royal law; by the 1180s, the basis for the future English common law had largely been established, with a standing law court in Westminster—an early Common Bench—and travelling judges conducting eyres around the country. They had close family and economic links to the Duchy of Normandy, spoke Norman French and had their own distinctive culture. [272] The universities of Oxford and Cambridge were established during the 11th and 12th centuries, drawing on the model of the University of Paris. [308], By the 14th century, castles were combining defences with luxurious, sophisticated living arrangements and landscaped gardens and parks. Legislation was introduced to limit wages and to prevent the consumption of luxury goods by the lower classes, with prosecutions coming to take up most of the legal system's energy and time. [217] Typically pilgrims would travel short distances to a shrine or a particular church, either to do penance for a perceived sin, or to seek relief from an illness or other condition. Hollister, p. 168; Alexander, pp. The Art of Illustrating Medieval History and Warfare. The local economy had once been dominated by imperial Roman spending on a large military establishment, which in turn helped to support a complex network of towns, roads, and villas. Why Was Hereward the Wake Wanted by the Normans? [274] Windmills began to be built in the late 12th century and slowly became more common. Prestwich (1992a), p. 93; Carpenter, p. 524. [110] Property and wealth became increasingly focused in the hands of a subset of the nobility, the great magnates, at the expense of the wider baronage, encouraging the breakdown of some aspects of local feudalism. [59] Despite the challenges involved in raising the revenues to pay for the war, Edward's military successes brought an influx of plundered wealth to many parts of England and enabled substantial building work by the king. A brief treatment of the Middle Ages follows. The Geography of Medieval Europe. Early in the period, kings were elected by members of the late king's council, but primogeniture rapidly became the norm for succession. [8], In the 7th century, the Kingdom of Mercia rose to prominence under the leadership of King Penda. [146], The years after the Black Death left many women widows; in the wider economy labour was in short supply and land was suddenly readily available. [302] The Anglo-Saxon kings undertook significant planned urban expansion in the 8th and 9th centuries, creating burhs, often protected with earth and wood ramparts. Social history of the United Kingdom (1945–present), Political history of the United Kingdom (1945–present), List of nobles and magnates of England in the 13th century, History of the Jews in England (1066–1290), Depiction of the Middle Ages in popular culture, Review of King Stephen, (review no. [68] The future Henry VII, aided by French and Scottish troops, returned to England and defeated Richard at the battle of Bosworth in 1485, bringing an end to the majority of the fighting, although lesser rebellions against his Tudor dynasty would continue for several years afterwards. It looks like a giant peninsula. The Cistercians: studies in the geography of medieval England and Wales in Studies and Texts--Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies (Toronto : Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1978). 19–20: Lavelle, p. 10; Creighton and Higham, pp. [266] Astrology, magic and palm reading were also considered important forms of knowledge in medieval England, although some doubted their reliability. [218] Some pilgrims travelled further, either to more distant sites within Britain or, in a few cases, onto the continent. A new online only channel for history lovers, huge leaps were made in the extent and precision of cartography, William the Conqueror and the Norman Conquest with Marc Morris, Conquest: From Hereward the Wake to Brexit, Vikings Uncovered: Part Two with Doug Bolender, The Eleanor Crosses: England’s Greatest Love Story. People crossed rivers by placing stones to keep themselves from getting wet by the water. [197] England's bishops remained powerful temporal figures, and in the early 12th-century raised armies against Scottish invaders and built up extensive holdings of castles across the country. [258] These new trading systems brought about the end of many of the international fairs and the rise of the chartered company. 1–4. Despite developments in England's governance and legal system, infighting between the Anglo-Norman elite resulted in multiple civil wars and the loss of Normandy. [57] Meanwhile, Edward, under pressure from France in Aquitaine, made a challenge for the French throne. [175] Despite this, the Jewish community became increasingly impoverished and was finally expelled from England in 1290 by Edward I, being replaced by foreign merchants. Hooper (1992a), p. 1, 11; Halsall, p. 185. [115] Edward III restored order once more with the help of a majority of the nobility, exercising power through the exchequer, the common bench and the royal household. [1] At the end of the 4th century, however, Roman forces had been largely withdrawn, and this economy collapsed. [265] Clocks were first built in England in the late 13th century, and the first mechanical clocks were certainly being installed in cathedrals and abbeys by the 1320s. [331] English continued to be used on a modest scale to write local religious works and some poems in the north of England, but most major works were produced in Latin or French. [340] Miracle plays were performed to communicate the Bible in various locations. 97–99. The new rulers introduced a feudal approach to governing England, eradicating the practice of slavery, but creating a much wider body of unfree labourers called serfs. [300] Battles might be fought when one fleet found another at anchor, such as the English victory at Sluys in 1340, or in more open waters, as off the coast of Winchelsea in 1350; raiding campaigns, such as the French attacks on the south of England between 1338 and 1339, could cause devastation from which some towns never fully recovered. 448–450; Danziger and Gillingham, p. 209. 412–415; 554. 244–264. Scotland borders England to the north and Wales to the west. Fleming, p. 311; Huscroft, pp. [118] The royal lands—and incomes from them—had diminished over the years, and increasingly frequent taxation was required to support royal initiatives. After several centuries of Germanic immigration, new identities and cultures began to emerge, developing into kingdoms that competed for power. [195] The monasteries were brought firmly into the web of feudal relations, with their holding of land linked to the provision of military support to the crown. [357] By the 14th century grander houses and castles were sophisticated affairs: expensively tiled, often featuring murals and glass windows, these buildings were often designed as a set of apartments to allow greater privacy. Airlie, pp. [180] Pope Gregory I sent a team of missionaries to convert King Æthelberht of Kent and his household, starting the process of converting Kent. [201] The Dominican and Franciscan friars arrived in England during the 1220s, establishing 150 friaries by the end of the 13th century; these mendicant orders rapidly became popular, particularly in towns, and heavily influenced local preaching. The Irish Sea, Atlantic Ocean and North Sea surround England, granting it an extensive coastline. [244] Agricultural land became typically organised around manors, and was divided between some fields that the landowner would manage directly, called demesne land, and the majority of the fields that would be cultivated by local peasants. [356] Wealthier town-houses were also built using stone, and incorporated business and domestic arrangements into a single functional design. Jun 14, 2018 - Explore Elizabeth Jane Corbett's board "Geography - medieval" on Pinterest. [255] The agricultural sector shrank rapidly, with higher wages, lower prices and diminishing profits leading to the final demise of the old demesne system and the advent of the modern farming system centring on the charging of cash rents for lands. [86] In the early part of the period local assemblies called moots were gathered to apply the laws to particular cases; in the 10th century these were replaced by hundred courts, serving local areas, and shire moots dealing with larger regions of the kingdom. [25] Major revolts followed, which William suppressed before intervening in the north-east of England, establishing Norman control of York and devastating the region. Matilda's son, Henry, finally agreed to a peace settlement at Winchester and succeeded as king in 1154. [92] The new earls (successors to the ealdermen), sheriffs and church seniors were all drawn from their ranks. [133] The resulting Wars of the Roses saw a savage escalation of violence between the noble leaderships of both sides: captured enemies were executed and family lands attainted. [241] Managed parks for hunting game, including deer and boars, were built as status symbols by the nobility from the 12th century onwards, but earlier versions of parks, such as hays, may have originated as early as the 7th century. [21] Æthelred's son, Edward the Confessor, had survived in exile in Normandy and returned to claim the throne in 1042. Learn medieval europe geography urban with free interactive flashcards. Whitelock, pp. Chapter 1 Changing Times Roads Lead to Rome You may have heard the expression, “All roads lead ... England. [332] In the reign of Richard II there was an upsurge in the use of Middle English in poetry, sometimes termed "Ricardian poetry", although the works still emulated French fashions. White (2000), pp. McClendon, pp. 29–30. [180] Augustine became the first Archbishop of Canterbury and started to build new churches across the South-East, reusing existing pagan shrines. [150] Some women became full-time ale brewers, until they were pushed out of business by the male-dominated beer industry in the 15th century. Carpenter, p. 87; Barlow (1999), p. 320; Dyer (2009), pp. [36], Henry II was the first of the Angevin rulers of England, so-called because he was also the Count of Anjou in Northern France. Those who lived by the mountains were in a good place for protection and shelter, but it was just as hard for them to escape the mountains as it was for invaders to attack. [284] The Viking attacks on England in the 9th century led to developments in tactics, including the use of shield walls in battle, and the Scandinavian seizure of power in the 11th century introduced housecarls, a form of elite household soldier who protected the king. [10] Mercia and the remaining kingdoms, led by their warrior elites, continued to compete for territory throughout the 8th century. [72] The relationship between kings and their nobles was bound up with military symbolism and the ritual exchange of weapons and armour. vol. [263], Technology and science in England advanced considerably during the Middle Ages, driven in part by the Greek and Islamic thinking that reached England from the 12th century onwards. 303–305. [80] As time went by, the position of the churls deteriorated, as their rights were slowly eroded and their duties to their lords increased. 56–57. [47], On becoming king, Edward I rebuilt the status of the monarchy, restoring and extending key castles that had fallen into disrepair. The first Jews arrived in England in the aftermath of the Norman invasion, when William the Conqueror brought over wealthy members of the Rouen community in Normandy to settle in London. 146–147; Carpenter, pp. England is bordered to the north by Scotland and to the west by Wales. [192] A reformed network of around 40 monastic institutions across the south and east of England, under the protection of the king, helped re-establish royal control over the reconquered Danelaw. [370] The medieval mystery plays continue to be enacted in key English towns and cities. [33] Henry's only legitimate son, William, died aboard the White Ship disaster of 1120, sparking a fresh succession crisis: Henry's nephew, Stephen of Blois, claimed the throne in 1135, but this was disputed by the Empress Matilda, Henry's daughter. [156] Over the 6th century, however, these different groups began to coalesce into stratified societies across England, roughly corresponding to the later Angle and Saxon kingdoms recorded by Bede in the 8th century. Southern Europe Covered with mountain ranges Northern Europe Some peaks in the Alps reach higher than 15,000 feet Most people lived far from the sea Physical Geography of Medieval Europe For example: Paris, France was built on an island in a river to make the city hard for [371] Historical fiction set in England during the Middle Ages remains persistently popular, with the 1980s and 1990s seeing a particular growth of historical detective fiction. [220] Senior nobles or kings would travel to Rome, which was a popular destination from the 7th century onwards; sometimes these trips were a form of convenient political exile. [43] John's efforts to raise revenues, combined with his fractious relationships with many of the English barons, led to confrontation in 1215, an attempt to restore peace through the signing of the Magna Carta, and finally the outbreak of the First Barons' War. [9], By the time that Richard II was deposed in 1399, the power of the major noble magnates had grown considerably; powerful rulers such as Henry IV would contain them, but during the minority of Henry VI they controlled the country. [74] Geburs, peasants who worked land belonging to a thegn, formed a lower class still. [250] More land, much of it at the expense of the royal forests, was brought into production to feed the growing population and to produce wool for export to Europe. Barlow (1999), p. 104; Duggan (1965), p. 67, cited Alexander, p. 3. [355], Meanwhile, domestic architecture had continued to develop, with the Normans, having first occupied the older Anglo-Saxon dwellings, rapidly beginning to build larger buildings in stone and timber. [103] England's bishops continued to form an important part in local administration, alongside the nobility. [R A Donkin] Huscroft, pp. [82] Under the Danish kings, a bodyguard of housecarls also accompanied the court. 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